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王寧:清華簡《攝命》讀札
在 2018/11/27 14:32:42 发布


清華簡《攝命》讀札

 

(首發)

王寧

棗莊廣播電視臺

 

《清華大學藏戰國竹簡[]》中的《攝命》一篇,因為是西周時期遺留下來的冊命文書,其用語比較古奧,與春秋之後的語言差距較大,所以比較難讀。整理者已經作了較好的釋讀註解,[[1]]此後諸家在簡帛網·簡帛論壇《清華簡〈攝命〉初讀》貼中又作了一些補正,[[2]]也包括筆者的一些看法,對部分問題提出了新的解釋,但仍覺有不少問題,故茲將筆者的一些觀點寫出來,以就教於方家。筆者在《初讀》中發佈的一些看法,後來又有所改變,故所論皆以本文為準。

1:劼姪(侄),(毖)(攝)

整理者:劼,李學勤比對戎生編鐘“劼遣”、晉姜鼎“嘉遣”,以為“劼”義同於“嘉”。“姪”如字,兄弟之子。毖,……其實當從《廣韻》訓“告”。(112頁注[]

石小力:清華簡(叁)《說命下》簡7:“王曰:‘敓(說),余既䛊(諟)𢼣(劼)䛑(毖)女(汝),思(使)若玉冰,上下罔不我義(儀)。’”“䛊𢼣䛑”無疑與《攝命》之“劼姪𠨘”意同。䛊𢼣,整理者讀為“諟劼”,曰:“䛊,從只,章母支部字,讀為禪母支部的‘諟’,《禮記·大學》注:‘正也。’‘𢼣䛑’即‘劼毖’,《書·酒誥》:‘汝劼毖殷獻臣。’對比同篇‘厥誥毖庶邦庶士’,知為誥戒之意。”與《攝命》解釋不同。但兩處文例相似,皆為王對王子或臣下的告誡,當統一理解較為合適。“劼姪”、“䛊𢼣”或為“毖”之修飾語,或與“毖”意近,我們懷疑三字當為同義連用。劼,《說命》的注釋已經指出,在《酒誥》篇中“劼毖”與“誥毖”相同,則“劼”有誥戒之意。䛊,疑讀為規,勸誡也。[[3]]

按:此當讀為一句“劼姪毖攝”。“劼毖”本殷周古語,是同義連舉而成的叠韵连绵詞,《說命》、《酒誥》及下簡30“劼(毖)”連言皆其證,是訓告、告誡義。“劼”亦用“詰”,《書·立政》:“其克詰爾戎兵”,《孔傳》:“詰,治也。”《周禮·天官冢宰·大宰》:“五曰刑典,以詰邦國”,鄭注:“詰,猶禁也。”又《秋官司寇·大司》:“佐王邦國,詰四方。”鄭注:“詰,謹也。”其實這些“詰”都是“戒”或“誡”義,告誡之則為其治、為其禁、為其謹,乃隨文賦義的解釋。《酒誥》一曰“劼毖”,一曰“誥毖”,“誥”當即“詰”之形誤。《史記·周本紀》曰:“穆王閔文武之道缺,乃命伯臩,申誡太仆國之政,作《臩命》”,“誡”字正相當於“劼(詰)”。疑“劼(詰)”本讀音同“吉”,與“戒(誡)”同見紐雙聲,西土周人語“戒(誡)”若“吉”,而用“劼”、“詰”書之。正因為“劼毖”是殷周古語,在西周文獻尚能見到,而到了東周以後的文獻中基本上就不再使用了。

《說命下》“余既䛊(諟)𢼣(劼)䛑(毖)女(汝)”,“䛊(諟)”字石小力先生認為“‘䛊’與‘䚳’有可能為一字異體,‘䛊’也是規勸之‘規’的異體”、“我們懷疑三字當為同義連用”,應該是對的,但是和“姪”聯繫起來感覺沒必要。“規”、“劼”、“毖”本含義相近,“規劼毖”猶後言規誡,《後漢書·左周黃列傳》:“共上疏稱舉忠直,欲帝置章御坐,以為規誡”者是。連綿詞也可以分開說,如《詩·燕燕》:“頡之頏之”、《東方未明》:顛之倒之、《老子》:“惚兮恍兮”之類。“劼毖姪攝”亦可曰“劼姪毖攝”,意思就是告誡或訓誡侄子伯攝。

1:亡承朕鄉,余弗造民康,余亦(曼)窮亡可事(使)。

整理者:鄉,訓為“往”、“昔”。《大誥》:“洪惟我幼沖人……弗造哲迪民康”,謂我不遭賢人進用,致民人康安。曼,長。竆,困窘不得志。

”字鄔可晶先生釋“夐”, 讀爲“惸”, 解作“無兄弟”,指出“《詩·小雅·正月》:‘哿矣富人,哀此惸獨。’孔疏:‘哀哉此單獨之民窮而無告。’簡文‘余亦夐窮亡可使’之‘夐’讀爲‘惸’,‘惸’、‘窮’連用,顯然是很合適的。”[[4]]暮四郎先生認為此字是從宀目又聲,讀為“愍”,解為遭遇憂難。[[5]]

按:“”字從字形上看,暮四郎先生說可能更為合理些。“目又”象以手掩目形,就是“民”的初文,孳乳出“眠”(翕目也)、“抿” (撫也)、“泯”(滅也)、“敃(敯)”(冒也)等字,其義均由掩目引申出來者;“曼”是隱瞞之“瞞”的初文,從冃從民會意兼從民聲。曼長的“曼”即甲骨文常見的“”字,是在手最長的中指上加一橫筆當指事符號,表示曼長之意,陳劍先生認為讀為“愍”。[[6]]“民”、“曼”古音里是音近的字,可以通用。這個字從穴民(曼)聲,很可能就是“𡫛”字的或體,《說文》:“𡫛𦤝𦤝,不見也。一曰𦤝𦤝,不省人。”徐鍇注:“室無人也。”段注:“‘𡫛’與‘臱’音義皆同。《毛詩》‘綿綿’,《韓詩》作‘民民’。按:綿綿、民民皆謂密也。”《爾雅·釋詁》:“泯、滅、空,盡也”,“𡫛”與“泯”、“滅”均音義相近;“窮”古訓“極”、“竟”、“盡”,與“空”義近,可知“𡫛窮”是同義連用,表示無人到了極點。

要正確理解《攝命》此數句,就得正確解讀《書·大誥》:“洪惟我幼沖人嗣無疆大歷服弗造哲迪民康”的文字,二者在語義上有很密切的關係。《大誥》是《尚書》中最為難讀的一篇,因為它裡面大部分是用周初的西土語言寫成,和東周以後的雅言已經有很大差距,這幾句的斷句和理解一直成問題。根據《攝命》可知當斷讀為“洪惟我幼沖人嗣無疆大歷,服弗造哲迪民康”,“洪”是發語詞,無義;“無疆大歷”本義是無限期的長久年代,代指“王朝大統”,[[7]]“嗣無疆大歷”的意思就是繼承王位,說明周初人說話喜歡用很複雜的替代語來表示簡單的含義。“服”是指百官,“造”《說文》訓“就也”,即來就,謂來周室當官侍奉我;“哲”即“逝”或“噬”的假借字,是語詞無義,起語氣連貫作用;“迪”是引導或致,數句的意思是:我繼承了王位,百官不來就職使人民安康。《詩·閔予小子》:“閔予小子,遭家不造,嬛嬛在疚。”毛傳:“造,為。”鄭箋:“造猶成也”,均非。“家”即指邦家之人,“遭家不造”就是遇到邦家之人不來就我的狀況,所以說“嬛嬛在疚”,“嬛嬛”是孤獨貌。

那麼可以知道,《攝命》的“亡承朕鄉,余弗造民康”當讀為一句,即“亡承朕鄉余弗造民康”,“承”是“奉”義,“鄉”許文獻先生讀“卿”,[[8]]可從。“亡承朕”是修飾“卿”的,是指那些不侍奉我的百官,相當於《大誥》的“服”和《閔予小子》的“家”;“余弗造”就是“弗造余”,即不來就我。“民康”前面很可能是抄脫了一個含義類似《大誥》“迪”的字,“亡承朕卿余弗造[]民康”的意思就是那些不肯侍奉我的百官不肯來臣服我以使人民安康,自己獨力難支,故下文說“余亦愍窮亡可使”,“愍”是憂慮義,“窮”相當於《閔予小子》的“嬛嬛”,這裡是窮困無助義。

2:余亦𨶰(橫)于四方。

整理者:《墨子·兼爱》引《泰誓》有“光于四方”,《堯典》云‘光被四表’,《漢書·王莽傳》、《後漢書·崔駰列傳》等作“橫被”,孔傳訓“被”為“充”。

按:《孔傳》訓“光”為“充”,整理者引文有誤。“𨶰”字《玉篇》叱終切,《集韻》枯光切,均訓“門關”,似非古訓。這個字當即廣闊之“廣”字之或體,與音同通假,《爾雅·釋畜》:在背,闕廣,《釋文》:廣,音光是其證。則義,“光被”、“橫被”即“廣被”,《孔傳》之訓殆不可據。

2:甚余我邦之若否,粵小大命。

按:此句是謂賓前置,即“我邦之若否粵小大命甚余”,“粵”是連詞,猶言“以及”;“甚”是超過。此二句是說我邦之好壞之事以及大小政令太多,超過了我能承受的限度,意思是不堪國家政務之多,希望有人幫手。

2-3:肆余【簡2猷(繇)卜乃身,休,卜吉。

整理者:《爾雅·釋詁》:肆、故,今也。《尚書》字多用於分句句首表結果。字不識,上半所從與金文同,疑讀為。猷,讀為。《大誥》:我有大事,休,朕卜并吉。113頁注[]

按:“”字不識,目前可以提出兩種解釋:

一是疑從食畫省聲,仍當讀“畫”,《廣韻》:“畫,計策也。”“猷”典籍多用“猶”字,段玉裁於《說文》“猶”下注云:“《釋詁》曰:‘猷,謀也。’《釋言》曰:‘猷,圖也。’《召南》傳曰:‘猶,若也。’《說文》:‘圖者,畫也,計難也。’謀者,慮難也。圖謀必酷肖其事而後有濟,故圖也、謀也、若也爲一義。《周禮》:‘以猶鬼神示之居’,猶者,圖畫也。”“畫猶”是同義連舉為語,即“畫圖”,亦曰“圖畫”,亦類似“圖謀”,即計劃、謀劃、打算。“休”前不當斷讀。“肆余畫猷卜乃身休,卜吉”此句是說我曾經打算占卜你身之休祥,占卜的結果是吉。《大誥》亦當讀作“我有大事休,朕卜并吉”,意思是我有大事之休祥(要占卜),我占卜并吉。

二是“”也有可能是“盡”字,甲骨文“盡”本是用刷洗器皿表示食物吃盡,這個字則徑從食作。“盡猷”意思類似“內盡謀猷”(《晉書·列傳第四十九》)的“盡謀猷”,古亦曰“盡謀”,《史記·范睢蔡澤列傳》:“臣得盡謀如伍子胥”。這裡當是想盡辦法的意思。

二說未敢是定,存以備考。

4:粵四方少(小)大邦,粵御事庶百又告有

“庶百”之“百”當是“百姓”之省語,金文中作“百生”,《逸周書·世俘》:“商庶百姓咸俟于郊。”

”或從“炎”,整理者從李學勤先生說釋“粦”,在簡文中讀為“嫌”和“廉”。又云:或說“有”讀為“有訟”,“明”讀為“崇明”,參看陳劍:《試為西周金文和清華簡<攝命>所謂“粦”字進一解》(《出土文獻》第十三輯,中西書局,2018年。)(113-114頁注[]

按:陳劍先生在其文中分析字形以為是從“浴”得聲,“有告有訟”、“有獄有訟”、“無獄亡訟”之讀均確;將“明”讀“崇明”,[[9]]則似有可商,古書無“崇明”之語,由此字用為“訟”推之,當讀為“聰明”,“聰”、“訟”古音清邪旁紐雙聲、同東部疊韻,讀音最為相近。古人亦以“聰明”稱譽睿智之人,如《大戴禮記·五帝德》言黃帝“成而聰明”,《禮記·中庸》:“唯天下至聖,為能聰明睿知,足以有臨也”,此類語古書習見。本簡文言“敬學聰明”,亦文從字順。

5:母(毋)𨔛(遞)才(在)服。

整理者:“毋遞”略同於詩書之“勿替”。……或說讀為“(弛)”,訓為懈怠。

按:疑讀“勿替”是,“遞”《廣韻》徒禮切、特計切,古音是定紐脂部,與透紐質部的“替”音較近。《說文》:“替,廢也。”

5:女(汝)隹(唯)(衛)事(衛)命

按:“”字當讀“會”,《周禮·天官冢宰·職幣》:“凡邦之會事,以式法贊之”,又《縣正》:“既役,則稽功會事而誅賞。”《後漢書·祭祀志上》引《河圖會昌符》:“赤劉之九,會命岱宗。”

6:女(汝)鬼(威)由ZWYHHQIENUT3Y]W0W%SY9NK(表)由Q~OZI$$L`ACS`3VK%CKOU4Y(望),不啻女(汝)鬼(威),則由ZXSY8G8D[`N{IDJMCTGBW}T(勱)女(汝)訓言之譔。

整理者:不啻,見《多士》、《無逸》、《秦誓》等,謂不但2K{A8OQZ`WN]B`WGR%{6{$8字係後書,讀為,《說文》:勉也訓言之譔結構同於《秦誓》群言之首;譔,《說文》:專教也。句謂汝不但以儀表資望威民,亦用言教幹事。(114頁注[一四]

按:“ZWYHHQIENUT3Y]W0W%SY9NK”字哇那先生讀“貌”,[[10]]可從。“貌”、“望”指外貌、外表。不啻,啻也;不但,但也,這裡的“不啻”當是“但凡”、“只有”的意思。“由勱”即從勉,謂從之、勉之,也就是聽從、服從的意思。譔,《說文》:“專教也。”段注:“專教者,專壹而教之也。鄭注《論語》‘異乎三子者之撰’,撰讀曰譔,譔之言善也。《廣韵》曰:‘譔,善言也’,本鄭。”這裡是表示教誨的意思。“訓言之譔”即訓言的教導、教誨。這三句是說:你的威儀要從外表上體現出來,只要你有威儀,人民就會聽從你訓言的教誨。

7:女(汝)母(毋)敢怙偈(遏)余曰乃(毓)。

按:此句疑當讀為“女(汝)母(毋)敢怙,偈余曰乃毓(胄)”。《詩·蓼莪》:“無父何怙,無母何恃”,這裡的“怙”就是依仗父親的威勢。恐非,當讀或“渴”,訓“急”,這裡用為催促意。“”是字不誤,然此處當讀。下簡28(毓)子,亦即《書·舜典》中教胄子胄子
   
此句的大意是:你不要依仗你父親的威勢,催促我說“我是胄子”。說“我是胄子”的意思是我要即位。伯攝是周懿王太子,孝王擔心他依仗自己太子的身份催促自己讓位,故明言警示之。

8:今亦(肩)(肱)難(勤)乃事。

按:“字讀“肩”甚可疑,此字疑當分析為從月(肉)啟省聲,即《說文》中的“䏿”字,訓“腓腸也”,即小腿肚子,《山海經》中有“無䏿之國”是,這裡代表腿。“䏿肱”猶後言之“股肱”。

9:隹(雖)民卣(攸)(協)弗(恭)其魯(旅),亦勿(侮)其(童),通(恫)眔(瘝)寡眔(鰥),惠于少(小)民。

按:此數句疑當斷讀作“隹(雖)民卣(攸)協弗恭,其魯(旅)亦勿敄(侮)其(從),通(恫)眔(及)寡眔(鰥),惠于少(小)民。”

“弗恭”即《盤庚中》“顛越不恭”的“不恭”。“”字從辵悤聲,疑是“從”或“蹤”的或體,ee先生讀“眾?”[[11]]心包先生讀“種”,[[12]]似以讀“種”義較勝。《書·盤庚中》:“乃有不吉不迪,顛越不恭,暫遇姦宄,我乃劓殄滅之,無遺育,無俾易種于茲新邑”,是種類、種族之“種”,表示所有人。“恫”故訓“痛”,此為憐惜、憐憫意。

此數句是說:雖然民有合夥不恭命的,你的軍隊也不要侮其所有人,憐憫之心及於寡鰥,恩惠施于小民。

10:女(汝)亦母(毋)敢彖(惰)才(在)乃死(屍)服,敬學明,勿繇(謠)之庶不訓(順)。

按:此數句疑當斷讀為“女(汝)亦母(毋)敢彖(泰、汰)才(在)乃死(屍)服,敬學[炎自](聰)明,勿繇(由)之庶不訓(順)。”

“彖”字從ee先生釋,[[13]]此當讀為“泰”,是安逸之意。“泰”後可斷讀,亦可不斷讀。

”字當讀為“聰”,說詳上“有告有訟”條。

“繇”整理者訓“用”,按:當讀“由”,放縱義。

11:亦則乃身亡能{B580[NUIR3G`]HK{9)IC03𢠽)甬(用)非頌(庸)女(汝)正命。
    整理者:M~@ZW2FB7UQHKK$PLG}CQO9,讀為𢠽,《說文》放也,段玉裁以為與等字通用。(116頁注[二四]

按:此句ee先生讀於“頌”下絕句,讀“頌”為“容”,[[14]]均可從。“{B580[NUIR3G`]HK{9)IC03𢠽)”即放蕩之“蕩”的本字,或作“盪”、“愓”、“婸”等。《說文》:“頌,皃也。从頁公聲。𩔜,籒文。”段注:“古作‘頌皃’,今作‘容皃’,古今字之異也。”“容”即容儀、行容,外貌舉止。“非容”即不好的行容。

13:其亦隹(唯)。

整理者注:“其亦唯”未詳,疑有脫誤。

按:疑是古代的編簡者將簡12和簡13弄倒了,也就是其順序本來是簡11+13+12+14。其大概的文字和斷句可能是:

“(上略)女(汝)有告于【11】朕,女(汝)母(毋)敢有退;于之自一話一言,女(汝)亦母(毋)敢泆;于之言隹(唯)明,母(毋)淫,母(毋)弗。其亦隹(唯)【13】余事,女(汝)有命正,有即正,亦若之頌(庸)弜羕。女(汝)有退進于朕命,乃隹(唯)望亡逢。則或即命【12】,乃亦隹(唯)肇謀,亦則匄(遏)逆于朕,是隹(唯)君子秉心,是女(汝)則隹(唯)肇悽(咨)弜羕,乃既誨,女廼敢【14】……”

”字醉馬先生釋“疊”訓“懼”,[[15]]疑是。

12:有即正,亦若之頌(庸)弜羕,女(汝)有退進於朕命,乃隹(唯)望亡逢。

按:此數句應當斷讀為“有即正,亦若之頌(容)。弜(弗)羕(祥)女(汝)有退進於朕命,乃隹(唯)望亡逢。”

“亦若之容”即也要這樣的舉止。

“弜羕”並非“不永”,而應讀《書·盤庚中》“迪高后丕乃崇降弗祥”的“弗祥”,這裡是“不善”義,其義同於《荀子·正諫》“夫斂民之哀而以為樂,不祥”的“不祥”,此為加強語氣將“弗祥”提前。簡14“弜(弗)羕(祥)乃既悔”,簡18(弗)恙(祥)女(汝)其有斁有甚(湛)”,均是如此用法。“恙”二字ee先生讀“弗祥”,[[16]]甚是。

“逢”當即“逢殃”或“逢災”之省語,《楚辭·天問》問王亥被殺之事言:“有扈牧豎,云何而逢?”“逢”即謂逢殃,《管子·形勢》:“曙戒勿怠,後稚逢殃。”《離騷》:“夏桀之常違兮,乃遂焉而逢殃。”諱言災殃而避之則單言“逢”。此二句當是說你執行我的命令猶豫不定是不好的,就只能希望不要遇到災殃。

12+14-15:則或即命【簡12】,乃亦隹(唯)肇𢘓(謀),亦則匄(遏)逆於朕,是隹(唯)君子秉心,是女(汝)則隹(唯)肇悽(咨)弜羕,乃既𠰔(悔),女(汝)迺敢【簡14】整(極)。

按:整理者讀“匄”為“遏”,似不通,當依字讀,“匄”亦“丐”,《漢書·文帝紀》:“及知見之所不及,匄以啟告朕”,顏注:“匄音蓋,匄亦乞也。啟,開也。言以過失開告朕躬,是則於朕為恩惠也。” 從語義看,“匄”是乞求、希望之意。“逆”是指臣下向王奏事,《周禮·夏官司馬·太僕》:“掌諸侯之復逆”,鄭注:“復,謂奏事。逆,謂自下而上曰逆。”蓋下級向上級奏事稱為“逆”,相當於今天所說的下級向上級“匯報”。“是隹”之“隹”當讀“惟”,訓思。

整理者於“乃既悔”下用句號,疑當用逗號,與“女廼敢整”相屬讀。

整理者注:“整,齊。,讀為‘極’、‘殛’。”

按:“整”訓“齊”是,“即“㥛”字,《說文》:“疾也”(段本據《韻會》改作“㤂性也”,“㤂”即“急”本字),“整㥛”即“齊疾”,《爾雅·釋言》:“疾、齊,壯也”,郭注:“壯,壯事,謂速也。齊亦疾。”邢《疏》:“急疾、齊整,皆於事敏速,強壯也。”“齊”、“疾”本皆是敏捷快速義,這裡是指處事乾脆利落的意思,表示人的成熟,故曰“壯”。“乃敢整㥛”即“乃能齊疾”,才能處事乾脆利索,意為成熟。

這幾句說的大概意思是:你或能服從我的安排,謀劃的事情希望向我匯報,這就是作為君子所應秉持的正確思想。你的謀劃如果不是長久之計,就要立即改正,這樣才能成為一個成熟的人。

15:女(汝)則亦隹(唯)肇不(丕)子不學,不啻女(汝),亦鬼(畏)獲朕心。

按:此數句疑當斷讀為“女(汝)則亦隹(唯)肇不子、不學、不啻(適),女(汝)亦鬼(畏)獲朕心。”“子”疑讀“慈”,“學”疑讀“孝”,“適”同“嫡”。“”即“懄”、“慬”,整理者訓“勞苦”(117頁注[三〇]),似於文意不暢。《廣韻》:“慬,憂哀也”,《集韻》:“懄,憂也”,這里當生氣、不高興講,“亦畏獲慬朕心”意思是你要小心我心裡會生氣。

16:女(汝)母(毋)敢朋(酗)於酒,勿教人德我。

按:“人”指下文所言的“朋”。“教”疑當讀為“效”,“德”當讀為“置”,“我”表示自己,“置我”是處置、安置自己。“勿效人置我”的意思是不要學別人那樣安置自己。

17:亡(罔)非楚(胥)以涇<> (極)。

按:“”即“㥛”字,《說文》訓“疾也”,厲害之意,不必改讀“極”。

17-18:王曰:攝,余辟相唯御事,余厭既異厥心厥德,不(之)則(俾)于余。

按:“余辟”和“余厭”為對文,可能是指王的兩種人。

整理者引《酒誥》:“自成湯咸至于帝乙,成王畏。相惟御事,厥棐有恭。”傳統的斷讀作“自成湯咸至于帝乙,成王畏相。惟御事,厥棐有恭”,根據《攝命》看,“自成湯咸至于帝乙”一句屬於上段文意,應該點句號,即“在昔殷先哲王,迪畏天顯小民,經德秉哲,自成湯咸至于帝乙。”下面是“成王畏相惟御事,厥棐有恭”。“相”字可能是“喪”的假借字,喪失義,意思是成王擔心喪失御事之人,所以對輔佐的臣子們恭敬。

《攝命》此簡的“余辟”可能是指我主事之人,“余厭”可能是指我合心之人,王當是說:我主事的人喪失了辦事的能力,我合心的人已經與我異心。

即“𨑭”字,《說文》以為“徙”本字,心包先生釋為“延”,句讀作“厥德不延”,[[17]]義較勝,“德”是指行為,“不延”之語古書習見,即不長久。

即“庳”字,此處疑當讀為“㪏”,《說文》:“毀也”,字亦作“捭”。“則㪏于余”意思應該是就會損害到我。又《禮記·禮運》:“燔黍捭豚”,《釋文》:“捭或作擗”,“擗”《說文》訓“撝”,是撕裂義,這裡當分裂、疏遠講,亦通。

18-19:引(矧)女(汝)隹(唯)子,今乃辟余,少(小)大乃有聞智(知)(弼)恙(詳)。女(汝)其有(斁)有甚(湛),乃眔余言,乃智(知)隹(唯)子不隹(唯)之頌(庸),是亦尚弗逢乃彝。

按:“弼恙”ee先生讀“弗祥”,是。“祥”《說文》“福也。一云善”,這裡當訓“善”。然“恙(祥)”後不當點句號,而應是逗號,語氣未完。“眔”即“及”,這裡是考慮到的意思。“頌”當從ee先生說讀“容”,舉止、行為。“是亦尚弗逢乃彝”疑當於“逢”下斷句,簡12有“乃唯望無逢”句可證,“乃彝”當屬下句讀作“乃彝乃乍(作)穆穆”。“尚”通“當”,“是亦尚弗逢”意思是這樣也應當不會遇到災殃。

此數句是說:你是年輕人,現在輔助我,從上到下如果告訴我你不善,說明你有錯誤有耽樂的現象,就要考慮到我的話,就會知道作為年輕人不該有的行為,這樣也當不會遇到災禍。

19-20:乃彝乃乍(作)穆=(穆穆),隹(唯)(恭)威儀,甬(用)辟余才(在)立(位),乃克甬(用)之彝。

按:彝,《爾雅·釋詁》訓“常”,引申為法度義,《廣韻》:“彝,法也”是其義。“作”是指行為、行動。《爾雅·釋訓》:“穆穆、肅肅,敬也”,這裡是嚴肅謹敬之貌。這幾句意思是:你的法度和行為嚴謹,敬行威儀,以輔佐我,這才是要堅持奉行的常法。

21:乃服隹(唯)(寅),女(汝)毋敢IMG_256=(滔滔)。

整理者引《康誥》:“汝惟小子,乃服惟弘。”

按:由《攝命》看,“”即“夤”字繁構,則《康誥》之“弘”當作“引”,乃音近通假字。《說文》:“夤,敬惕也”,小心謹慎之意。

IMG_256”字石小力先生已经指出就是“㯱”字,并舉出《四十三年逑鼎》和《毛公鼎》上的“龏==”為證,顯然是對的。“㯱”在出土文獻中多用為“包”,[[18]]這裡疑當讀為“褒”,“包”、“褒”都是幫紐幽部字。《玉篇》:“褒,揚美也”,“龏龏褒褒”就是恭敬你認為該恭敬的,褒揚你認為該褒揚的,和簡24的“好==(好好宏宏)”意思略同,故此處“㯱㯱”亦當讀為“褒褒”,意思都是不根據實際情況而全憑個人好惡來處事,所以王不希望發生這種情況。

22-23:凡人無獄亡(無)}1F]YT7HLX)QP@W{1YOUM[A,廼隹(唯)惪(德)亯=(享,享)E751KL~T46RG)Z3M1AOSX6U(載)不)`%UE0DUCE]0[(27[FT2VV1(孚),是亦引休,女(汝)則亦受3U0Z[HXOSD~BSAWH%)[5BOX(幣),女(汝)廼尚}8LT8N@ODOU4~2A2EQJ@{WQ(祗)逆告于朕。

整理者:URQ$ZWTR{UN21~4~`9_Q4JJ中所從為上博簡《緇衣》萬邦作孚字。,詩書中習見天命不誠、天不可信之語,……《康誥》:天畏棐忱;民情大可見,小人難保,往盡乃心,《君奭》:若天棐忱,我亦不敢知曰,其終出于不祥,孫詒讓《尚書駢枝》:謂天命無常,不可信也。簡文享載不孚與上引《康誥》文意相類。(118頁注[四二]

按:“}1F]YT7HLX)QP@W{1YOUM[A”當從陳劍先生說讀“訟”,說已見上。“”當即“𨴫”字,《康熙字典·門部》云“《篇海》音閻,出《釋典》”,非其古音古義。疑此字乃郛郭之“郛”的或體,故從門會意,亦得讀為“孚”訓“信”,然整理者理解文意似有可商。“德”字當讀“置”,二字同端紐職部,音同可通。“置享”即《說文》:“奠,置祭也”之“置祭”,謂舉行祭祀。《左傳·莊公十年》:“公曰:‘犧牲玉帛,弗敢加也,必以信。’對曰:‘小信未孚,神弗福也。’”簡文的“孚”亦即此中的“信”和“孚”。蓋古人祭祀,向祖先、神靈獻祭的祭品(犧牲玉帛)都有定數,是與祭祀對象約定好的,祭祀時足數而貢則為“信”為“孚”,不足數就是“不信”、“不孚”。

本來前面是說王告誡伯攝在斷獄訟時不要受幣(不許受賄),這裡是說:在沒有獄訟的時候,要舉行祭祀,如果祭祀的時候祭品不足,為了求得長久的吉祥,就可以受幣,你也當來向我匯報。

24:女(汝)亦引母(毋)好=(好好)、宏=(宏宏)、QSQK5EP]R)8_}1DUG~F5KKF(劊)惪(德)。

整理者云:“‘劊’訓為‘斷’,或讀為‘劌’,訓為割傷。”(119頁注[四三]

按:“宏”下恐不當點斷。“劊”疑當讀為“割”或“害”,都是損害義,《漢書·谷永杜鄴傳》:“夫違天害德”,《前漢紀·孝武皇帝紀》:“傷道害德”。

26-27:民有曰之。余一人害(曷)叚(假),不則戠(職)智(知)之聞之言;余【26】害(曷)叚(假),不則高(奉)乃身,亦余一人永顏(安)在立(位)。

按:程浩先生認為“民”屬上句讀,“有”讀為“又”,[[19]]當是。然斷句仍有問題,疑其斷句當為:

“有(又)曰:之余一人害(曷)叚(假)?不則戠智(知)之聞之;言余害(曷)叚(假)?不則高(奉)乃身,亦余一人永顏在立(位)。”

“余”前的“之”、“言”二字均是賓語前置,第二個“余”後疑抄脫了“一人”二字,即此二句也可以作“余一人害(曷)叚(假)之?”、“余[一人]害(曷)叚(假)言?”其中的“叚”字,石小力先生文中引沈培先生對金文用例的研究成果,“大多數情況下可以理解為‘可能……’、‘會……’”。按:從金文的用例看,其“不叚”、“弗叚”的意思,相當於後世之“不能”、“不會”,“叚”相當於“能”或“會”。那麼“余一人曷叚之”即“余一人何能之”,“之”是指上面王對伯攝的任命,意思是我為什麼會這樣作?“余一人何叚言”即“余一人何能言”,“言”是指前面王說的那些話,意思是我為什麼會這樣說?

“不則”謂“是”。“不”猶“則”也,“不”與“則”同義,連言之則曰“不則”,“即是”之意。[[20]]“戠”字整理者讀“職”,程浩先生讀“識”,疑讀“識”是,但後面脫漏了“之”字,其文當為“不則識[]、智(知)之、聞之”,“識”是記住,“知”是知道,“聞”是“聞名”“聞人”之“聞”,謂其名聲傳揚為人所聞知,所謂“有名”,這裡的意思略同於“傳揚”。意思是是要人民記住你、知道你、傳揚你;“不則高奉乃身”意為是要提高你的身份地位。

“顏”字整理者讀“安”。按:《說文》:“彥,美士有彣,人所言也。”段注:“言、彥疊韵。”“顏”、“彥”、“言”古音都是疑紐元部字,音近可通,此疑當即用為“言”,與“焉”、“以”、“而”、“乃”、“則”等字的意思略同,[[21]]“永言在位”,和《詩》“永言保之”(《載駕》)、“星言夙駕”(《定之方中》)、“受言載之”(《彤弓》)等的“言”用法相同,語氣連詞,不一定有實在意義。

因此,這幾句的意思大概是:王又說:我為什麼會這樣做?是要記住你、知道你、傳揚你;我為什麼會這麼說?是要提高你的身份地位,我也可以長久地在位。所以下文接著說“所弗克戠(識)甬(用)朕命朕教,民朋亦興仇怨女,仇□女”,意思是如果你不能完全理解奉行我的訓命和教誨,民朋也就會產生仇怨你、仇恨你的情緒,意思是前後連貫的。

28(仇)囗女。

按:“仇”後之字整理者缺釋。從字形上看,此字上從艸,下面當是“訢”或“訓”,似乎更接近從“訢”,即從艸訢聲,此處疑讀為“恨”,“訢”、“恨”曉匣旁紐雙聲、同文部疊韻音近。

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              http://www.bsm.org.cn/bbs/attachment/thumb/2_73076_d01f218ebdff73c.png       訢(上博五.7  訓(攝命06

29:余隹(唯)亦(功)乍(作)女(汝),余亦隹(唯)兌(說)女(汝),有女(汝)隹[沈臼](沖)子……

按:第一句疑抄手將“亦”、“隹(唯)”二字抄倒了,當作“余亦唯功作汝”。“”字整理者疑從言折省聲,即“誓”字,疑是,但此處疑仍讀為“折”。“”字整理者云“不識”,此字疑即“燬”字,仍讀“毀”,“折毀”本是損壞、破壞義,引申為誹毀義,《孔叢子·陳士義》:“雖然,古之賢聖豈有似子者乎?吾將舉以折毀子者。”“兌”字不當讀“說”,而應讀“敓(奪)”。“有”疑當屬上句讀,作“兌(敓)女(汝)有”。這兩句是帶有威脅性的話,意思是我也可以因為有功勞而推舉你,我也可以因為誹毀而剝奪你所擁有的。是王告誡伯攝要建功立業,不要妄為招來誹毀。

32:王乎(呼)乍(作)冊任冊命白(伯)GEG$EDNI7Y5`@7D(W[2X}WV(攝):S581@N)76S}VWL)6$V9ILGQ

整理者:%P(2E5ER]N%S%LLFF2`[WB1,金文多作𠭯形,句首語詞。楊樹達說《費誓》徂茲淮夷、徐戎并興即金文𠭯字,讀為……王曰S9KBSWM0}O3RWVC{5$IWXVN收束全篇。

按:簡32全文均陳述王冊命伯攝的經過,并沒有引某人的語言,也沒有“曰”或“王曰”的字樣,且單用一個句首語詞的“嗟”作全篇結尾,甚覺怪異。“𠭯”在金文中或用為“且”,或用為“嗟”,或用為“祖”,這裡當是“且”,是陳述句句尾的語氣助詞,古書習見此種用法,如《詩·山有扶蘇》第一章末尾兩句是“不見子都,乃見狂且”,毛傳:“且,辭也。”《孟子·告子上》趙注引《詩》此句,《音義》引丁音:“且,助句辭。”《易·夬·九四》:“其行次且”,《釋文》引馬曰:“且,語助也。”《文選·張平子〈西京賦〉》:“其樂只且”,李注:“且,辭也。”說明“且”字是放在句末起加強語氣作用的語氣助詞,和“焉”、“也”的用法差不多,恐不得理解為“王曰‘嗟’”,故此句當作“王呼作冊任冊命伯攝且”,相當於說“王呼作冊任冊命伯攝焉”。

 

 

 

 

 



[1] 清華大學出土文獻研究與保護中心:《清華大學藏戰國竹簡[]》,中西書局2018年,釋文及注釋見下冊110-120頁。下引整理者注均出此,隨文註明頁數和注釋序號,不另出注。

[2] 《清華簡〈攝命〉初讀》,簡帛網·簡帛論壇·簡帛研讀2018-10-08. http://www.bsm.org.cn/bbs/read.php?tid=4352&page=1下簡稱《初讀》。

[3] 石小力:《清華簡第八輯字詞補釋》,清華大學出土文獻研究與保護中心網站2018-11-17. http://www.ctwx.tsinghua.edu.cn/publish/cetrp/6831/2018/20181117172522302458725/20181117172522302458725_.html下引石先生說同,不另出注。

[4] 鄔可晶:《試釋清華簡〈攝命〉的“敻”字》,復旦網2018/11/17. http://www.gwz.fudan.edu.cn/Web/Show/4324

[5] 《初讀》49樓發言。發表日期:2018/11/23.

[6] 陳劍:《甲骨金文舊釋“尤”之字及相關諸字新釋》,《甲骨金文考釋論集》,線裝書局2007年,59-80頁。

[7] 顧頡剛、劉起釪:《尚書校釋譯論》,中華書局2005年,1264頁。

[8] 《初讀》37樓發言。發表日期:2018/11/22.

[9] 陳劍:《試為西周金文和清華簡<攝命>所謂“粦”字進一解》(《出土文獻》第十三輯,中西書局,2018年。又收入《纪念清华简入藏暨清华大学出土文献研究与保护中心成立十周年国际学术研讨会论文集》,清華大學出土文獻研究與保護中心20181117-18日,36-44頁。

[10] 《初讀》7樓發言,發表日期:2018/11/17.

[11] 《初讀》13樓發言,發表日期:2018/11/18.

[12] 《初讀》32樓發言,發表日期:2018/11/22.

[13] 《初讀》17樓發言。發表日期:2018/11/19.

[14] 《初讀》13樓發言,發表日期:2018/11/18.

[15] 醉馬:《清華簡〈攝命〉“曡”字試釋》,復旦網2018/11/21. http://www.gwz.fudan.edu.cn/Web/Show/4331

[16] 《初讀》31樓發言,發表時間:2018/11/22.

[17] 《初讀》42樓發言,發表日期:2018/11/23.

[18] 白于藍:《簡帛古書通假字大系》,福建人民出版社2017年,131頁。

[19] 程浩:《清華簡第八輯整理報告拾遺》,清華大學出土文獻研究與保護中心2018-11-17. http://www.ctwx.tsinghua.edu.cn/publish/cetrp/6831/2018/20181117171808287933997/20181117171808287933997_.html

[20] 解惠全、崔永琳、鄭天一:《古書虛詞通解》,中華書局2008年,43頁。

[21] 《古書虛詞通解》,843-844頁。


本文收稿日期为2018年11月27日

本文发布日期为2018年11月27日

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